SCAL - CENTRIFUGES
Engineering & Technology Services has a comprehensive centrifuge facility with automated camera monitoring.
The machines are capable of stable running from as low as 150 rpm right up to 20,000 rpm. Measurements are possible at reservior temperatures and confining stress.
ETS has implemented high-pressure mercury injection systems which can characterize pores as low as 0.003 microns (60,000 psi), unconfined as well as under confining stress using our unique SiHgma technology.
Mercury intrusion is also available for whole core samples under reservior confining stress.
ETS has a state-of-the-art benchtop machine which is capable of measuring NMR T2 distributions with and without confining stress and has pulsed field gradient capabality.
Measurements can be performed at reservior temperatures also.
ETS scientists have over twenty years experience in designing field studies to assist reservoir engineers in reservoir management.
The KSA laboratory boasts some of the most advanced technology and expertise commercially available worldwide including steady state relative permeability apparatus with non-invasive saturation monitoring, automated centrifuges and NMR.
Our approach is thoughtful and collaborative; each design and construction stakeholder plays an important role in helping us derive the right the solution to delight our clients.
We offer chemical stratigrapghy tests through our advanced XRF, ICP-OES and ICP-MS machines that provide data to model changes in depositional ENVIRONnment, provinance and weathering/diagenesis.
Measurement of electrical properties is available through porous plate or dynamic displacement technique. Engineering & Technology Services has the capacity to simultaneously test over 100 samples, using either 2 or 4 electrode measurements at reservoir conditions.
Data include Resistivities (Rw, Ro, Rt), Formation Factor (F), Resistivity Index (I), cementation and Saturation Exponents (m & n), and Co-Cw analysis for clay-corrections.
SIMULATION & HISTORY MATCHING
SIMULATION & HISTORY MATCHING
For most SCAL laboratory displacement relative permeability experiments, core scale saturation artefacts (boundary effects) occur that MUST be corrected for by employing a core-flood simulator & history matching procedure. Failure to do so will result in erroneously high residual hydrocarbon saturations and supressed displacing phase endpoint permeability - both have serious economic implications if not accounted for.
One simulation run is required for each of the following types of experiment:
- Dynamic water displacing oil or gas displacing oil relative permeability (steady state & unsteady state)
- Centrifuge water or gas displacing oil relative permeability
- Dynamic gas displacing water relative permeability (steady state only)
In addition, simulation can be performed upon multi-speed centrifuge experiments to derive capillary pressure and relative permeability.